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Y después del petróleo, ¿qué? II | El Mundo de Wayne Y después del petróleo, ¿qué? II | Punto de encuentro sobre cooperación al desarrollo, conflictos, medio ambiente, cultura, tecnología y economía.
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Actualidad medioambiental »Medio Ambiente »

Y después del petróleo, ¿qué? II


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Viene de: Y después del petróleo, ¿qué? I

Agricultores norteamericanos cultivan hoy “maíz de alta fermentación” especialmente seleccionado para extraer de él gran cantidad de alcohol carburante, y la compañía biotecnológica Monsanto está trabajando en semillas transgénicas de maíz superproductor de etanol.

Y esto es sólo el principio: la Comisión Europea, que mantiene una docena de programas de apoyo a este sector, prevé que, a medida que el petróleo se vaya agotando en más y más países y el precio del que quede se dispare, España y otros países se llenarán de “cultivos energéticos” y de “ecodestilerías” que irán solucionando sin traumas, no sólo el agotamiento del petróleo sino los compromisos de Kioto sobre reducción de gases de invernadero e, incluso, los excedentes agrícolas.

LA ECONOMÍA DEL HIDRÓGENO

Jeremy Rifkin es economista, presidente de la Fundación sobre Tendencias Económicas con sede en Washington y ha escrito 16 reconocidos libros sobre el impacto de la ciencia y la tecnología en la economía, la sociedad y el medio ambiente. El último de ellos se llama “La Economía del Hidrógeno” y en él, sostiene que “el hidrógeno cambiará radicalmente la naturaleza de nuestras instituciones sociales, políticas y mercantiles, al igual que hicieron la energía del carbón y del vapor al comienzo de la era industrial”.

¿CÓMO FUNCIONA ESA ENERGÍA REVOLUCIONARIA?

Pues básicamente, con una batería similar a la que lleva hoy cada coche, y un suministro de hidrógeno. La batería o pila de combustible produce electricidad para todos los sistemas del vehículo y está hoy bastante dominada, aunque los científicos –fundamentalmente, en Norteamérica y Japón- las siguen perfeccionando para hacerlas más baratas, ligeras y fiables. Lo segundo es más complicado y llevará todavía un par de décadas llegar a un punto en que puedan producirse millones de toneladas de hidrógeno gaseoso o líquido a un precio asequible.

El hidrógeno es el elemento más abundante del Universo pero, como apenas existe en estado puro, es necesario extraerlo a partir de sus combinaciones, esto es, de otras sustancias. La más ventajosa es el agua, pero es también la más difícil por el momento. Hoy, se produce de un modo mucho más fácil a partir de gas natural, etanol, carbón e, incluso, restos de alimentos como azúcar y grasa.

De momento, todos los gigantes del automóvil (entre otros, General Motors, Chrysler, Ford, Daimler-Benz, BMW, Iveco o Man) están invirtiendo miles de millones de euros en esta tecnología. General Motors, por ejemplo, afirma que destina el 50% de su presupuesto de I+D a desarrollar vehículos de hidrógeno con el objetivo de ponerlos en el mercado a gran escala a partir del año 2010.

“El hidrógeno comprimido [gaseoso] parece la forma más viable de distribuirlo – explica Pedro García Ybarra, coordinador del Área de Hidrogeno del Centro de Investigaciones Energéticas (CIEMAT)-, el coche funcionará con una bombona de hidrógeno que alimenta la pila de combustible (que es el motor del coche) y, cuando el hidrógeno se acaba, se cambiará en la gasolinera por otra”.

Rifkin y otros analistas vaticinan que las principales capitales europeas dispondrán de estaciones de servicio con surtidores de hidrógeno líquido o contenedores de gas el próximo año, aunque su generalización tendrá que esperar, al menos, hasta el año 2020. Hasta entonces, por suerte, habrá petróleo.

Fuente de la fotografía: conciudadanos.com.ar

Autor del reportaje: Rafael Carrasco. Agencia Dossier.

agenciadossier


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1 Comentario

    • Wario
    • el 25/01/2010 a las 5:52 pm

    Estoy con Luisinho en el comentario que ha dejado en la primera parte del artículo http://www.elmundodewayne.es/2010/01/18/despuesdelpetroleo/#comment-2494 De momento los estudios sobre balance de CO2 de los biocombustibles sales siempre en negativo y parece que tiene que ser ilegal venderlos como productos que luchan contra el cambio climático. Las razones que da Luisinho dejan muy claro la realidad de estos combustibles. He de añadir que si ya tenemos una gran presión en la naturaleza por los cambios de uso del suelo por el avance de la frontera agrícola estos combustibles “eco” empeoran muchísimo el problema. Recordáis el artículo del Grupo Romero? http://www.elmundodewayne.es/2009/12/09/la-deforestacion-de-la-amazonia-por-el-grupo-romero/
    HAY QUE DEJAR DE ASOCIAR CAMBIO CLIMÁTICO COMO TODOS LOS PROBLEMAS DEL MEDIO AMBIENTE. Hay muchos más problemas y de gran importancia!!

    Por cierto, el avance de la frontera agrícola es un emisor de CO2. Alrededor del 20% de las emisiones de CO2 mundiales son consecuencia de la deforestación. Estos combustibles solo agravan el problema y más desde que se han inventado los cultivos de palma en las zonas tropicales, las zonas de mayor biodiversidad!!