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El de Berlín no era ni es el único | El Mundo de Wayne El de Berlín no era ni es el único | Punto de encuentro sobre cooperación al desarrollo, conflictos, medio ambiente, cultura, tecnología y economía.
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África »América »Asia »Conflictos »Europa »

El de Berlín no era ni es el único


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Todos lo hemos leído, escuchado y visto: esta semana se han cumplido 20 años de la caída del Muro de Berlín. Con este motivo se han sucedido festejos, conmemoraciones y actos institucionales. Precisamente a raíz de este aniversario también ha surgido otra pregunta: ¿Qué ocurre con otros muros?

Desafortunadamente el Muro de Berlín no era el único y, desde su caída, han ido apareciendo otra serie de muros o barreras que se suman a los que ya existían. Israel, Estados Unidos, España, Brasil, Corea del Norte y Corea del Sur son solo algunos de los sitios dónde se han levantado muros con lo que ello supone. A continuación os presentamos un estudio de los muros o barreras que hay en diferentes países y artículos relacionados de mucho interés.

Es probable que en esta lista falten muchos muros, ya que el número es amplio, incluso en algunas referencias aparecen más de una veintena de muros activos. Nosotros comenzaremos por repasar los siguientes:

Cisjordania21 – ISRAEL – CISJORDANIA: el muro Cisjordania/ el muro de la vergüenza: el más conocido de todos.  Levantado por Israel para protegerse de los ataques palestinos según la versión del gobierno israelí que aprobó esta medida en junio de 2003. Todavía sigue su construcción en marcha. Las denominaciones que se le han otorgado al muro son muy variadas, dependiendo del origen.

Enlace: Barrera israelí de Cisjordania

Estados Unidos 22 – ESTADOS UNIDOS – MÉXICO: el muro de la Tortilla: se comenzó a construir en 1994 por decisión del gobierno estadounidense y en pro de la lucha contra la inmigración ilegal. Desde 2006 se está acometiendo una renovación y ampliación de ese muro. El gobierno mexicano la rechaza.

Enlace: muro fronterizo Estados Unidos – México.

Ceuta 23 – ESPAÑA – MARRUECOS: las vallas de Ceuta y Melilla: construidas por España. El gobierno marroquí rechaza estas vallas. El propósito también es evitar la inmigración ilegal y el contrabando. Construidos ambos a mediados de los años 90. Más adelante se sustituyeron quitando elementos cortantes y peligrosos, pero con mayor dificultad para su pase.

Enlaces: la valla de Ceuta y la valla de Melilla.

Sahara 24 – SAHARA OCCIDENTAL: el muro del Sahara Occidental: conjunto de ocho muros defensivos construidos por el poder marroquí. Su construcción comenzó en 1980. Según la versión marroquí, este muro les defiende de los ataques del Frente Polisario y protege las zonas costeras y mineras de los saharauis.

Enlace: el muro marroquí.

Corea 25 – COREA DEL NORTE Y COREA DEL SUR: zona desmilitarizada: construido en 1953 como zona neutral entre ambos países. Con 4 kilómetros de ancho y 253 de largo. Casi no hay poblaciones civiles. A modo anecdótico o no, goza de una diversidad en flora y fauna reconocida internacionalmente.

Enlace: zona desmilitarizada de Corea.

Belfast 26- IRLANDA DEL NORTE: en Belfast y otras ciudades se comenzaron a levantar muros o barreras en 1970 para separar barrios o emplazamientos según su religión. Las denominaciones son muy variadas.

Enlace: los muros de Belfast.

Rio 27 – BRASIL: el muro de la miseria: en este mismo año, el gobierno brasileño ha aprobado la construcción de un muro en Río de Janeiro para proteger “la vegetación nativa, el bosque atlántico, del avance de las viviendas marginales de las favelas”. Subrayan las razones medioambientales, pero todo el mundo habla del intento contener la expansión de las favelas y luchar contra la droga.

Enlace: el muro de la miseria ya divide Río.

En cada enlace tenéis más información, como las dimensiones de las barreras o muros, las opiniones de los que se sienten perjudicados, las diferentes interpretaciones que se pueden llevar a cabo. Por ejemplo, al margen de las razones oficiales que hemos citado, también hay datos en sentido contrario:

– la barrera de Cisjordania está sobre territorio palestino ocupado. Además deja fuera de la supuesta zona palestina a poblaciones de esas características, poniéndolas en una situación comprometida.

– el muro en la frontera de Estados Unidos con México conllevó que los inmigrantes ilegales intentasen entrar a Estados Unidos por zonas mucho más peligrosas como el desierto de Arizona, dónde ya han muerto miles de inmigrantes en el intento.

– el establecimiento de vallas en Ceuta y Melilla ha conllevado automáticamente un mayor intento de entrada a España por el Estrecho de Gibraltar. La cifra aproximada de ahogados se cifra en superior a 4.000.

– el muro del Sahara está rodeado de minas anti-personas en zonas no señalizadas como tales.

– se han descubierto ya varios túneles de espionaje que pasaban por debajo de la zona desmilitarizada de Corea.

– para el muro de Río de Janeiro, las autoridades alegan, entre otras razones, que quieren parar la expansión de las favelas en zonas medioambientalmente protegidas. Sin embargo, también hay casas de nivel económico alto por la zona, que lógicamente no tendrán un muro delante de su hogar.

Queremos conocer vuestra opinión y, además, desde ahora mismo está activa una nueva encuesta en el Mundo de Wayne sobre este tema: ¿creéis que los fines justifican la construcción de muros o barreras para separar poblaciones?

Y recordad que también podéis expresaros a través de los comentarios en las noticias o de nuestro grupo en Facebook dónde os esperamos: http://facebook.com/elmundodewayne.es


Eduardo Galeano escribió: “El Muro de Berlín era la noticia de cada día. De la mañana a la noche leíamos, veíamos, escuchábamos: el Muro de la Vergüenza, el Muro de la Infamia, la Cortina de Hierro… Por fin, ese muro, que merecía caer, cayó. Pero otros muros han brotado, siguen brotando, en el mundo, y aunque son mucho más grandes que el de Berlín, de ellos se habla poco o nada”.

Enlaces relacionados:

–  “el muro”: fantástico artículo en decrecimiento.info en el que se cuentan hasta 21 muros en diferentes partes del mundo.

–  “la confusión abatió el muro”, artículo de elpais.com dónde se explica cómo cayó el muro de Berlín.


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3 Comentarios

    • Mordecai
    • el 13/11/2009 a las 11:24 am

    muy bueno viri¡¡¡

    • Kid
    • el 13/11/2009 a las 11:37 am

    😉

    • Pierre
    • el 13/11/2009 a las 1:23 pm

    me parece muy interesante el articulo ya que queria escribir uno sobre este tema 🙂
    queria comentar una sola cosa no creo que se justifiquen las construcciones de esos muros (excepto el de Rio, lo puedo entender).
    me ha atraido la atencion, durante estos dias, un historiador que comento que la RDA se habia arruinado construyendo el muro de Berlin.
    entonces me gustaria imaginar un mundo donde el dinero utilizado para levantar esas barreras podrian haber servido en la educacion, en la integracion de los immigrantes o para ayudar los paises.
    un mundo con el dinero americano del muro gastado para luchar contra la pobresa en America Central.
    imaginense el dinero español para ayudar a la integracion de las poblaciones immigrantes o ayudar a marruecos

    TODA ESTA FORTUNA PODRIA SER MUCHO MAS UTIL

    Pierre